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Dx Ringworm Treatment:

Tinea Infections

The Merck Manual Home Edition
"Dermatophytoses are fungal infections of the skin and nails caused by several different fungi and classified by the location on the body. Dermatophyte infections are also called ringworm or tinea.
*Symptoms of dermatophytoses include rashes, scaling, and itching.
*Doctors usually examine the affected area and view a skin or nail sample under a microscope or sometimes do a culture.
*Antifungal drugs applied directly to the affected areas or taken by mouth usually cure the infection.

Dermatophytes are molds (fungi) that need the protein keratin for nutrition. Keratin is the structural material that makes up the outer layer of human skin. It is also the main structural material of hair and nails. To survive, dermatophytes must live on skin, hair, or nails (a nail infection is called tinea unguium or onychomycosis). Infection may occur almost anywhere on the skin, including the feet (Athlete's Foot-Tinea Pedis), groin (Jock Itch- Tinea Cruris), scalp (Scalp Ringworm-Tinea Capitis), body (Body Ringworm-Tinea Capitis), and beard area (Beard Ringworm-Tinea Brabae).

Dermatophyte infections in humans are caused by Epidermophyton,Microsporum, and Trichophyton. These organisms may inhabit a person permanently and never cause an infection. When they do cause an infection (resulting in ringworm or tinea), it is often because the affected area's blood supply is poor or because the person's immune system is suppressed (for example, by diabetes, cancer, or HIV infection). Unlike candidiasis, these fungal infections cannot infect internal organs or blood.

Dermatophyte infections are sometimes called ringworm or tinea. Despite the name, a ringworm infection does not involve worms. The name arose because of the ring-shaped skin patches created by the infection. Symptoms vary depending on the location of the infection. Most often, there is little or no inflammation and the infected areas are mildly itchy with a scaling, slightly raised border. These patches can come and go intermittently. Occasionally, inflammation is more severe and suddenly causes large and small fluid-filled spots to appear (usually on the foot) or an inflamed, swollen patch on the scalp that sometimes oozes pus (kerion).

Doctors can frequently identify a ringworm infection by its appearance. To confirm the diagnosis, doctors take skin scrapings and view them under a microscope. Doctors do a culture (the process of growing an organism in a laboratory for identification) only if the person has a scalp or nail infection.

Treatment varies by site but always involves antifungal drugs that are applied to the affected area (topical) or are taken by mouth.

Medications Used in Treatment:
1. Azole antifungals: ketoconazole, econazole, Oxistat®/ oxiconazole, sulconazole, Luzu®
2. Azole/corticosteroid: Lotrisone®/clotrimazole/betamethasone
3.Hydroxypridone Antifungals: Loprox®/Ciclopirox,, Ciclodan®
4. Tubulin Inhibitors: Gris-Peg®/Grifulvin®V. griseofulvin
5. Allylamine Antifungals: Naftin®/naftifine, Tinactin®
6. Antiprotozoal: Alcortin®A, Aloquin®/ aloe polysaccharide, iodoquinol, Dermazene®/ hydrocortisone/iodoquinol
7. Gentian violet:

*[Editor] In the world community, communicable skin diseases are prevalent. A 1985 report showed that the use of 1% lindane for scabies/pediculosis and 1% gentian violet with four daily doses of sulfamethoxy-pysidazine had a cure rate of 86%.

*WebMD states "Gentian violet is an antiseptic dye used to treat fungal infections of the skin (e.g., ringworm, athlete's foot). It also has weak antibacterial effects and may be used on minor cuts and scrapes to prevent infection."

Suggested Links:
*Medscape / Tinea Capitis
* Medscape/ Tinea Barbae
* Medscape/ Tinea Corporis
* Medscape/ Tinea Curis
Medscape/ Tinea Pedis
* Medscape/ Tinea Versicolor

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