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Dx Respiratory Infection/ Pneumonia Treatments:

Respiratory Infection/Pneumonia

N.H.S. Choices (with Video)
"Pneumonia is inflammation (swelling) of the tissue in one or both of your lungs. It is usually caused by an infection.

At the end of the breathing tubes in your lungs are clusters of tiny air sacs. If you have pneumonia, these tiny sacs become inflamed and fill up with fluid.

Terms such as bronchopneumonia, lobar pneumonia and double pneumonia are sometimes used, but refer to the same condition with the same causes and treatment.

Common symptoms of pneumonia include:
*a cough
*difficulty breathing

When to see your GP
If you experience any of the symptoms of pneumonia, see your GP.
*You may need a chest X-ray or further tests to confirm the diagnosis.
*If you are experiencing severe symptoms such as rapid breathing, chest pain or confusion, seek urgent medical attention.

What causes pneumonia?
The most common cause of pneumonia is a pneumococcal infection caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, there are many different types of bacteria and viruses that can lead to pneumonia.

*Good hygiene and a healthy lifestyle can help prevent pneumonia. Try to avoid smoking, as it damages your lungs and increases the chance of infection.
*People at high risk of pneumonia should also be offered the pneumo- vaccine and the flu vaccine.

How is pneumonia treated?
*Mild pneumonia can usually be treated at home with antibiotics, rest and fluids. People who are otherwise healthy will normally recover well.
*For people with other health conditions, pneumonia can be severe and may need to be treated in hospital.
*This is because pneumonia can lead to complications, some of which can be fatal, depending on the health and age of the patient. These include:
*respiratory failure (when the lungs cannot take in enough oxygen) due to the air sacs filling with water
*lung abscesses
*blood poisoning (septicaemia

Who is affected?
*In the UK, pneumonia affects around one in 100 adults each year. It is more common during autumn and winter.
*Pneumonia can affect people of any age, although it is more common and
Can be more serious in groups such as:
*babies, young children and elderly people
*people who smoke
*people with other health conditions, such as a lung condition or weakened immune system
*People in these groups are more likely to need treatment in hospital.

Medications Used in Treatment:
1. Penicillin Antibiotics: Amoxil®/ampicillin
2. Macrolide Antibiotics: Zithromax®/azithromycin, Ery-Tab® Erythrocin® E.E.S.® Pce®/erythromycin, Biaxin®/clarithromycin
3. Cephalosporin Antibiotics: Keflex®/cephalexin, cefdinir®/ Ceftin®/cefuroxime axetil, cefprozil, Suprax®/cefixime, cefaclor, Rocephin®/ceftriaxone, cefazolin, Spectracef®/ceftibuten
4. Antifolate/Sulfa Antibiotic Combination: Septra® Sulfatrim®/sulfamethoxaole/trimethoprim
5. Penicillin Antibiotic/Beta Lactamase Inhibitor Combination: Augmentin®/amoxicillin, clavulanic acid
6. Linosamide Antibiotics: Cleocin®/clindamycin
7. Tetracycline Antibiotic: Vibramycin® Doryx®/doxycylcine hyclate, Minocin® Dynacin®/minocycline, Monodox® Vibramycin® Morgidox®/doxycycline monohydrate, tetracycline, demeclocycline
8. Nitroimidazole Antibiotics: Flagyl®/metroniazole
9. Quinolone Antibiotics: Levaquin®/levofloxacin, ofloxacin,Avelox®/moxiflosacin
10. Glycopeptide Antibiotics: vancomycin
11. Nucleoside Analogue Antivirals: Virazole®/ribavirin
a href="">Monobactam Antibiotics: Azactam®/aztreonam

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*[Editor] Unfortunately, the use of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Korea has led to the dominance of non-vaccine serotypes 19A and 6A. The epidemiology may imply that the vaccine has, if not worsening the childhood invasive pneumococcal disease, may have not improved the mortality and morbidity. Similar results were noted as the incidence of Acute Mastoiditis in Colorado fell after introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine only to increase in incidence to pre-PCV7 rates.

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